Что делать, если появилась трещина в кирпичной стене

Образование трещин в стене — довольно распространенная проблема, с которой сталкиваются как владельцы частных загородных домов, так и хозяева городских квартир. Данный дефект весьма коварен: он наносит не только косметический ущерб внешнему виду вашего жилья, но и способен привести к ряду значительно более серьезных неприятностей. Осыпавшаяся краска, отклеившиеся обои — вот меньшее из зол. Если вовремя не заняться ремонтом, то здание постепенно начнёт утрачивать свои качественные характеристики, что впоследствии может привести к угрозе его обрушения. Поэтому трещину, обнаруженную в стене дома, следует сразу же устранить.

Как и многие другие ремонтные работы, устранение трещин в стене проводится в несколько этапов. Здесь их всего два:

1. Выяснение причины появления трещины в стене дома.

2. Проведение ремонтных работ и удаление выявленного дефекта.

Причин появления трещин в стене может быть множество:

— нарушение технологий во время строительства дома;

— деформация фундамента вследствие различных причин (слишком высокая нагрузка на стены, рядом залегают грунтовые воды, недостаточное заглубление основания);

— естественная усадка дома;

— «гуляние» грунта;

— воздействие неблагоприятных природных факторов (перепады температур, пагубное влияние влаги);

— естественное старение и износ строительных материалов

— некачественное приготовление выравнивающего раствора или неправильное его нанесение на стены.

Способы удаления дефектов во многом будут зависеть от того материала, из которого возведены стены дома. Существуют нормативы, в которых указано, что устранением трещин в стенах кирпичных зданий следует заниматься только после того, как будет полностью ликвидирована причина их появления. Методы работы также выбираются исходя из локализации стенового разлома: внутри помещения или же снаружи.

Важно помнить о том, что приступать к ремонту можно только в том случае, если трещина перестала расходиться. Определить это довольно просто: на проблемную зону наклеивают четыре-пять небольших бумажных фрагментов и оставляют их на две-три недели. Если в течение этого времени бумага сильно не перекосилась и не порвалась, значит, расширение лакуны прекратилось.

К счастью, нередко под трещины в стене часто маскируются довольно безобидные дефекты штукатурки. Внимательно осмотрите проблемную зону: если разрыв наблюдается только с одной стороны, значит, это, скорее всего, дефект именно штукатурки, и удалить его будет довольно просто.

Если обнаруженная вами трещина не очень большая, то алгоритм действий выглядит следующим образом: сначала с поврежденного участка удаляют старый, начавший разрушаться слой штукатурки. Затем его очищают от пыли, грязи и иного мусора, после чего смачивают водой (при помощи ветоши или кисти). Дальше можно приступать непосредственно к заделыванию щели. Для этого берется специальный раствор на гипсовой основе, его можно найти в любом строительном магазине. Смесь готовится строго в соответствии с прилагаемой к ней инструкции; она замешивается до получения однородного состава. Раствор аккуратно наносится шпателем. Потребуется около 4-7 часов для полного его застывания, после чего можно будет воспользоваться наждачной бумагой, чтобы провести окончательную обработку проблемной зоны.

Если трещина идёт не в слое штукатурки, а в самой кирпичной стене, то действовать нужно немного иначе. Для заделывания щелей шириной не более 5 мм можно воспользоваться цементным раствором. Как и в случае со штукатурным слоем, место разрыва сначала нужно тщательно очистить от всех видов загрязнений, а потом увлажнить. Края трещины немного сбивают молотком, то есть несколько ее расширяют и углубляют для повышения адгезии кирпича и цементного раствора. Затем щель заполняют раствором. При ширине трещины от 5 до 10 мм в раствор добавляют песок.

Существует еще один вариант заделывания трещины в кирпичной стене — при помощи герметика. Последовательность работ здесь такая же, как и в двух предыдущих случаях: сначала трещина очищается и углубляется, затем качественно прогрунтовывается. После высыхания грунтовки при помощи плунжерного пистолета трещина заполняется герметиком (только выбирайте состав не на силиконовой основе). После окончания ремонтных работ излишки герметика следует убрать.

Сквозные трещины в кирпичной кладке, сквозь которые проникает влага, нужно не только устраняться сразу с двух сторон, но и утеплять. Здесь следует использовать монтажную пену, которая отлично зарекомендовала себя для уличных работ ввиду своей влагостойкости (в качестве альтернативы можно применять специальную уплотнительную ленту). Флакон с пеной перед применением нужно потрясти, после чего заполнить составом щель. Помните о том, что при застывании монтажная пена расширяется, поэтому не заполняйте полость целиком. Затем ее подрезают на глубину 15-25 мм, после чего наносят сверху цементный раствор.

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