Обрыв проводки: как обнаружить проблемную зону

Трудно переоценить важность электричества для всего человечества. Абсолютно все инженерные системы, социальные объекты, научные разработки и исследования, да и просто элементарные блага цивилизации, к которым мы привыкли настолько, что даже не замечаем их в повседневной жизни — всё это зависит от бесперебойной подачи электропитания. Если планета останется без электричества, то на ней воцарится самый настоящий хаос. Но не будем драматизировать, рассматривая глобальные проблемы; лучше остановимся на проблемах локального характера. Сложность, с которой может столкнуться каждый из нас — неполадки в работе электропроводки. О том, как определить тип повреждения, поговорим в нашей сегодняшней статье.

Любые неполадки электрической сети доставляют владельцам домов и квартир много неприятностей и бытовых неудобств. Однако в большинстве случаев с ними вполне можно справиться собственными силами. Для устранения возникших неисправностей придется сначала определить причину их появления, а она может быть какой угодно:

— некачественные материалы (провода);

— неправильная технология монтажа;

— нарушение изоляционного слоя;

— плохой контакт между элементами цепи;

— механические повреждения;

— обрыв проводов;

— перегрузка электрической сети.

О наличии серьезных проблем указывает:

— постоянно срабатывающий защитный механизм;

— нет фазы;

— нет нуля;

— одновременно нет как нуля, так и фазы;

— проводка искрится;

— имеется короткое замыкание.

Существует классификация, согласно которой все неполадки сети делятся на три основных класса:

— 1-й класс (дефекты в соединительных узлах проводов в розетках и распределительных коробках, в местах присоединения к контактам автоматов выключателей или электрического щита — около 50 % всех повреждений);

— 2-й класс (механические поломки внутренней проводки, возникающие во время проведения ремонтно-строительных работ — около 30 % всех повреждений);

— 3-й класс (обрыв внутренней проводки без постороннего вмешательства ввиду перегрузок сети, естественного износа материала или неисправности УЗО — около 20 % всех повреждений).

В случае, когда причиной возникновения проблем с подачей электроэнергии становится обрыв проводки, следует обязательно отыскать место повреждения. Если у вас в доме проложена проводка открытого типа, то, скорее всего, найти проблемную зону труда не составит, ибо она будет видна невооруженным взглядом. А вот если у вас имеется электропроводка скрытого типа, то сделать это будет значительно труднее. Вам понадобится целый набор инструментов, среди которых должна быть отвертка обыкновенная и индикаторная, специальный инструмент — трассоискатель, мультиметр, изолента, нож, пассатижи.

Первым делом следует определить группу подключения, в которой возникла неисправность, и полностью отсоединить ее от автомата. При наличии плана проводки это будет сделать совсем просто. Нужный провод выискивается путем включения/выключения автоматов; фаза в «проблемной» розетке проверяется при помощи индикатора. Следующий этап работ заключается в том, что вам будет необходимо по очереди прозвонить все узлы: от провода в электрощите и до пункта соединения розеток одной жилой. Распределительные коробки обязательно вскрываются — при наличии такой возможности, и, когда видно, что внутри нет никаких неполадок, осуществляют прозвон. Бывают случаи, когда коробки недоступны, или же разводка сделана без них. Тогда приходится по всему периметру аварийного участка снимать розетки и делать прозвон через них. К счастью, в большинстве случаев дефекты обнаруживаются в первой розетке, потому что основная нагрузка приходится именно на нее. Однако, если после всех проделанных манипуляций, вы так и не смогли обнаружить проблему, значит, она располагается внутри стены.

Чтобы найти обрыв в стене, лучше всего воспользоваться трассоискателем (специальный прибор, который состоит из генератора и приемника). К проводу с наличием дефекта подводят генератор (клемма- присоединяется к рабочему проводу, клемма+ к испорченному). Прибор включается и перемещается вдоль всей системы проводки. От него подаются импульсы и звуковой сигнал, который умолкает, когда обнаруживается поврежденное место. Чтобы определить точное место аварии, проведите встречную проверку. Если дефект заключается в обрыве нулевого провода, то будьте особенно осторожны, так как вам может ударить током. Понять, что проблема имеется «в нуле», можно понять, когда на индикаторной отвертке при проверке контактов будет видно небольшое свечение. При отсутствии трассоискателя заменой может послужить самый обычный работающий радиоприемник. В поврежденную розетку включают любой бытовой электроприбор, потребляющий мало энергии, и водят приемник по всему периметру проводов. В зоне повреждения шум прибора исчезнет.

Итак, вы обнаружили обрыв проводки, и будете в дальнейшем заниматься ликвидацией дефекта. Сразу хочется оговорить один момент: если проблема скрывается в толще стены, то даже не пытайтесь решить ее самостоятельно, а сразу обратитесь к профессионалам. В случае самостоятельного проведения ремонтных работ не забудьте про качественную электроизоляцию.

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