Замена розетки в доме: пошаговая инструкция

В современных домах и квартирах предусмотрено наличие большого количества розеток. Это обусловлено тем, что за последние десятилетия было разработано немало полезных устройств и бытовых приборов, облегчающих ведение домашнего хозяйства: кухонные комбайны, пароварки, мультиварки, пылесосы с множеством полезных функций… Этот список можно продолжать до бесконечности. Почти все агрегаты подключаются, конечно же, к электросети. Так что нет ничего удивительного в том, что нагрузка на сеть при этом увеличивается, а розетки время от времени выходят из строя. Соответственно, требуется их замена. Такую работу сложно назвать трудоемкой, с ней вполне можно справиться самостоятельно, даже не имея особых навыков и опыта.

При работе с электричеством необходимо соблюдать повышенные меры безопасности. Если вы собрались менять розетку, то в квартире обязательно нужно предварительно отключить электропитание. Отсюда следует и второе важное правило: осуществлять ремонт следует только в дневное время при достаточном естественном освещении. Конечно, из любого правила бывают исключения: например, если необходимо экстренное вмешательство, не требующее отлагательств. Тогда лучше всего вооружиться фонариком и обязательно надеть для защиты резиновые перчатки. Используйте для ремонта и монтажа только качественные инструменты и материалы. Не стоит рисковать, устанавливая дешевые розетки, ибо цена ошибки может оказаться слишком высокой.

Причин для замены розетки может быть несколько:

— явная неисправность (она обычно характеризуется выпадением гнезда из розетки, оплавлением видимых пластмассовых частей, запахом гари, отсутствием электричества в устройстве);

— замена розетки на более новую, совершенную, привлекательную с точки зрения дизайна модель;

— замена совершается для того чтобы усовершенствовать электрическое оборудование.

Впрочем, не так важны причины, как необходимость проводить работы согласно всем правилами СНиПа. Вы должны проверить, соблюдаются ли эксплуатационные показатели розетки. Это означает, что, например, в помещениях с повышенным влагоотделением и парообразованием (речь идет, в первую очередь, в ванной комнате и кухне) все точки подключения обязаны иметь дополнительную защиту корпуса. Учитывайте также такой важный параметр, как тип монтажа электропроводки: он может быть открытый и закрытый. Значит, розетку нужно выбирать либо накладную, либо встраиваемую. Не забывайте еще и про тип сети: если она обычная двухпроводная, то можно использовать стандартную конструкцию без заземляющего контакта, если трехфазная, то следует приобрести другую модель.

Замена розетки происходит в несколько этапов:

1. Подготовка необходимого набора инструментов

Для того чтобы заменить розетку в доме, вам понадобятся:

— набор отверток;

— индикатор напряжения;

— пассатижи (плоскогубцы);

— кусачки и нож;

— молоток;

— зубило.

Конечно, набор инструментов может варьироваться в зависимости от типа сети и сложности требуемых работ.

2. Демонтаж старой розетки

Первым делом необходимо отключить электропитание в квартире. После этого можно приступать к демонтажу. Снимите защитную крышку с розетки, открутив при помощи отвертки крепежные элементы (обычно это один или два винта). На всякий случай убедитесь в отсутствии напряжения в устройстве при помощи специального индикатора. Если всё в порядке, то можете снимать внутреннюю часть розетки. С левой и правой стороны вы увидите винты или распорные лапки, которые фиксируют рабочую плату. Их нужно разжать или выкрутить. Сама розетка извлекается из подрозетника на максимально возможное расстояние (оно определяется длиной проводов), затем удаляют фиксационные шурупы, удерживающие кабели питания, после чего последовательно отсоединяют токоведущие жилы. Действуйте очень осторожно, чтобы не повредить провода.

3. Визуальный осмотр

Необходимо провести визуальный осмотр проводов. Если вы обнаружили оплавленные сегменты провода, то их надо удалить. Оставить следует лишь цельную, неповреждённую часть изоляции. Если, сняв розетку, вы увидели, что ее внутренняя часть крепится к стене без подрозетника, то учтите, что его обязательно нужно установить.

4. Монтаж новой накладной розетки

Для монтажа вам понадобятся следующие инструменты: плоскогубцы, саморезы, набор отверток, нож, трубки термоусадочные, мультиметр. Разберите корпус свежеприобретенной розетки. Так как старый подрозетник может оказаться неподходящего размера, его лучше всего удалить, заменив новым элементом. Он должен быть полностью заглублен в стену, любые деформации конструкции исключаются. Фиксируют подрозетник особым раствором алебастра, гипса или цемента. Излишки состава удаляют шпателем, после чего выравнивают положение детали. Затем в подрозетнике создают удобный паз, вводят в него провода, а после этого начинают монтаж внутреннего блока. Чтобы присоединить устройство к жилам, нужно завести кончики в предназначенные для этого клеммы. Для этого с них снимают изоляцию на 6-9 мм.

Все жилы можно идентифицировать по цветам. «Фазе» соответствует белая оплетка (в некоторых случаях черная, серая, красная), «нулю» — голубая (или синяя), защитному проводнику — желто-зеленая. Ни в коем случае не перепутайте их!

После подключения внутреннего блока его ставят на свое место, выравнивают, а затем закрепляют при помощи винтов. Финальным действием становится установка защитной крышки розетки.

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